Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Mechanical Engineering

Major Professor

Thomas Eason, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Daniel Hess, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Muhammad Rahman Ph. D.


electronic package, bga, moiré interferometry


As technology progresses towards smaller electronic packages, thermo-mechanical considerations pose a challenge to package designers. One area of difficulty is the ability to predict the fatigue life of the solder connections. To do this one must be able to accurately model the thermo-mechanical performance of the electronic package. As the solder ball size decreases, it becomes difficult to determine the performance of the package with traditional methods such as the use of strain gages. This is due to the fact that strain gages become limited in size and resolution and lack the ability to measure discreet strain fields as the solder ball size decreases.

A solution to the limitations exhibited in strain gages is the use of Moiré interferometry. Moiré interferometry utilizes optical interferometry to measure small, in-plane relative displacements and strains with high sensitivity. Moiré interferometry is a full field technique over the application area, whereas a strain gage gives an average strain for the area encompassed by the gage. This ability to measure full field strains is useful in the analysis of electronic package interconnections; especially when used to measure strains in the solder ball corners, where failure is known to originate.

While the improved resolution of the data yielded by the method of Moiré interferometry results in the ability to develop more accurate models, that is not to say the process is simple and without difficulties of it's own. Moiré interferometry is inherently susceptible to error due to experimental and environmental effects; therefore, it is vital to generate a reliable experimental procedure that provides repeatable results. This was achieved in this study by emulating and modifying established procedures to meet our specific application. The developed procedure includes the preparation of the specimen, the replication and transfer of the grids, the use of the PEMI, interpretation of results, and validation of data by finite element analysis using ANSYS software. The data obtained maintained uniformity to the extent required by the scope of this study, and potential sources of error have been identified and should be the subject of further research.