Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department

Mechanical Engineering

Major Professor

Muhammad M. Rahman, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Roger A. Crane, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Autar K. Kaw, Ph.D.


spray cooling, cone angle, mixing length, liquid-gas interface, atomizer


A conical nozzle with two separate inlets within its top plate is analyzed. One of the inlets is in the center of the top plate, which is free to rotate, whereas the other inlet is positioned away from the center. The fluid entering through the outer inlet slot causes the top plate of the nozzle to spin. Several fluids including FC-77, FC-72, FC-87, and Methanol running at different flow rates were investigated to observe the effect that their particular properties have on the geometry of the fluid's free surface exiting the nozzle. Another variation performed was the geometry of the nozzle. The outer inlet slot was positioned at various radial distances along the top plate. For this nozzle, the top plate remained stationary and swirling was introduced to the fluid at the inlets. It was observed that the faster flow rates caused an increase in the free surface height and cone angle. For the various radial locations of the outer inlet slot, it was noted that a position at approximately 75% of the nozzle radius produced the largest free surface height. The largest cone angle was produced when the outer inlet slot was positioned at the edge of the nozzle top plate. Another factor that increased the radial height and cone angle of the free surface was the working fluid used in the study. A larger Reynolds number produced a larger cone angle and larger free surface height (while a smaller Reynolds number produced a less significant cone angle and free surface height).