Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Michael Brannick, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Tammy Allen, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Walter Borman, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Vicky Phares, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Judith Becker-Bryant, Ph.D.


women, work/life balance, work/life fit


The factor structure of the work/family conflict scale developed by Carlson, Kacmar, & Williams (2000) was analyzed for measurement invariance between a US and an Australian/New Zealand (ANZ) sample using a multisample confirmatory factor analysis procedure. Results indicated that factor pattern fit between the female samples on the common model was good-to-mediocre, and factor pattern fit between the male samples and the common model was mediocre-to-poor. Both samples exhibited significant changes in chi square when testing for the more restrictive factor loading equivalence. Partial measurement invariance revealed a better fit between the male samples when three of the items were unconstrained, and when eight items were unconstrained between the female samples. Finally, males and females in the ANZ sample exhibited factor pattern invariance, but required two items to be unconstrained before factor loading invariance was achieved. Mean differences on the six scales revealed higher levels of time-based work interference with family and family interference with work for males than for females in the ANZ sample.