Spatiotemporal Distributions of Ambient Oxides of Nitrogen, with Implications for Exposure Inequality and Urban Design

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Intra-urban differences in concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and exposure disparities in the Tampa area were investigated across temporal scales through emissions estimation, dispersion modeling, and analysis of residential subpopulation exposures. A hybrid estimation method was applied to provide link-level hourly on-road mobile source emissions. Ambient concentrations in 2002 at 1 km resolution were estimated using the CALPUFF dispersion model. Results were combined with residential demographic data at the block-group level, to investigate exposures and inequality for select racioethnic, age, and income population subgroups. Results indicate that on-road mobile sources contributed disproportionately to ground-level concentrations and dominated the spatial footprint across temporal scales (annual average to maximum hour). The black, lower income (less than $40K annually), and Hispanic subgroups had higher estimated exposures than the county average; the white and higher income (greater than $60K) subgroups had lower than average exposures. As annual average concentration increased, the disparity between groups generally increased. However, for the highest 1-hr concentrations, reverse disparities were also found.

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Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, v. 63, issue 8, p. 943-955