Document Type

Technical Report

Publication Date



On-demand transportation, TNC, microtransit, shared-ride trips, pooling, equity, access, affordability, safety perceptions, improvements to shared-ride services

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)


Transportation network companies (TNCs) and microtransit are changing the way people travel by providing dynamic, on-demand mobility that can supplement public transit and personal vehicle use. However, heavy use of such motorized vehicles among all sociodemographic populations could contribute to increased vehicle miles traveled, congestion, and/or greenhouse gas emissions. To balance the objectives of increasing mobility and access for underserved communities while simultaneously mitigating the potential adverse impacts of increased motor vehicle use, well-designed policy strategies, such as pooling and first-mile/last-mile linkages, are needed. In this study, we applied a mixed-method approach to examine on-demand transportation services for underserved populations with a focus on shared-ride services. We conducted a series of interviews and a literature review, identifying individual narratives and lived experiences that put flesh into the quantitative analysis. Specifically, we administered a national online mobility survey and conducted analyses to uncover current shared mobility user patterns and possible relationships to transportation equity. The results of this study aim to provide a better understanding of the likelihood of certain sociodemographic populations using on-demand transportation services (particularly shared mobilities), the factors contributing to user behavior, and the potential strategies maximizing equitable access and mobility offered through these services while mitigating potential adverse impacts.

Policy Brief.pdf (255 kB)
Policy Brief