Cryogenic ridges: a new speleothem type
Bogdan P. Onac, Daniel M. Cleary, Oana A. Dumitru, Victor J. Polyak, Ioan Povara, Jonathan G. Wynn, and Yemane Asmerom

  • Cryogenic ridges: a new speleothem type
  • Cryogenic ridges are seasonally precipitated in Sohodoalele Mici Cave
  • The isotopic composition is different in calcite ridges and the inner stalactite
  • The formation of cryogenic ridges is discussed


Mg records of two stalagmites from B7-Cave (northwest Germany) indicating long-term precipitation changes during Early to Mid-Holocene
Dana F. C. Riechelmann, Klaus Peter Jochum, Detlev K. Richter, and Denis Scholz

  • Redating of B7-Cave stalagmites results in more precise age models
  • High-resolution Mg concentrations are related to prior calcite precipitation
  • Mg records indicate increasing precipitation at the beginning of the Holocene


Why the delay in recognizing terrestrial obligate cave species in the tropics?
Francis G. Howarth

  • Several factors explain why the discovery of tropical troglobionts was delayed
  • Temperature and humidity are major factors in defining troglobiont distribution
  • Troglobionts evolve by an adaptive shift across a cave/surface ecotonal boundary
  • Subterranean species and ecosystems are vulnerable and threatened by novel stressors
  • Research in tropical caves has expanded our understanding of evolutionary ecology of cave life


4D flow pattern of the longest cave in the Eastern Alps (Schönberg-Höhlensystem, Totes Gebirge)
Lukas Plan, Eva Kaminsky, Pauline Oberender, Clemens Tenreiter, and Maximilian Wimmer

  • Speleogenesis of a 156 km long and 1061 m deep Alpine cave system is studied
  • Arrangement of passages at two slightly inclined planes is confirmed as speleogenetic phases
  • Morphological observations reveal a reversal of flow-direction through time
  • According to current hydrological conditions, a dual flow is proposed
  • Unlike other karst massifs in the NCA, sediments support autogenic recharge for Totes Gebirge


The physical activity of Spanish speleologists: accomplishment of recommendations and differences by sociodemographic variables
Miquel Pans, Laura Antón-González, and Maite Pellicer-Chenoll

  • Activities in the natural environment such as speleology have health benefits
  • This is the first study on physical activity in a large sample of Spanish speleologists
  • Most of the speleologists surveyed met the World Health Organization’s physical activity recommendations
  • Differences in physical activity by gender, age, studies and speleological level
  • We discuss the possible reasons for these differences and their implications


Preliminary data of potentially hazardous radon concentrations in Modrič Cave (Croatia)
Robert Lončarić, Vanja Radolić, Maša Surić, Igor Miklavčić, Matea Šatalić, Dalibor Paar, and Lukrecija Obšivač

  • Variations of radon concentrations are investigated in Modrič Cave (Croatia)
  • Biogenic CO2 as a carrier gas governs seasonal radon variations
  • Morphology of two main passages controls spatial variations of radon
  • The left, touristic passage is safe year round
  • Maximal radon concentrations in the right passage can be considered a health hazard

Rapid Communication


Cave-dwelling crocodiles of Central Belize
Jut Wynne, Marisa Tellez, Kayla Hartwell, Stevan Reneau, Gilroy Welch, Kyle Voyles, Michael Cal, Reynold Cal, Denoy Castillo, and Jane Champion

  • Five caves were surveyed by wading (up to waist deep) and kayaking
  • Trail cameras used to monitor crocodiles and prey species in most flooded caves
  • Crocodiles were observed in two caves
  • A trail camera captured a crocodile exiting a third cave
  • ≥16 potential prey species identified via direct observation and trail cameras

Book Review