Volume 51, Issue 2 (2022)



Hydrodynamic model for independent cold and thermo-mineral twin springs in a stratified continental karst aquifer, Camou, Arbailles Massif, Pyrénées, France
Philippe Audra, Jean-Yves Bigot, Dimitri Laurent, Nathalie Vanara, Didier Cailhol, and Gérard Cazenave

  • Camou twin springs discharge cold and hot-saline waters, from distinct water bodies
  • We studied the dynamic of thermohaline using temperature-depth dataloggers
  • Water bodies with different physic characteristic do not mix, even in same conduit
  • We suggest a hydrodynamic model for non-mixing in highly karstified context
  • Camou springs are an outstanding case of continental stratified karst aquifer


Recreational caving impacts of visitors in a high-altitude cave in Bolivian Andes: main effects on microhabitat structure and faunal distribution
Lais Furtado Oliveira, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Jaime Iván Rodríguez Fernández, and Marconi Souza Silva

  • Humajalanta cave presented 32 invertebrate species, six of them troglomorphic
  • The species composition between visited and non-visited areas differed significantly
  • Singular components of microhabitat determined the similarity of the non-troglobitic fauna
  • Microhabitat heterogeneity determined the non-troglobite species richness
  • Impacts of weak visitation did not determine faunal differentiation between areas


Sulfuric acid speleogenesis and surface landform evolution along the Vienna Basin Transfer Fault: Plavecký Karst, Slovakia
Pavel Bella, Helena Hercman, Šimon Kdýr, Petr Mikysek, Petr Pruner, Juraj Littva, Jozef Minár, Michal Gradzinski, Wojciech Wróblewski, Marek Velšmid, and Pavel Bosak

  • Multi-phased hypogene speleogenesis occured at the fault interface of a horst-graben structure
  • Sulfuric acid speleogenesis is identified by morphological and mineralogical evidence
  • Cave levels are featured by flat corrosion floors and fissure discharge feeders
  • Formation of cave levels is linked to the subsidence history of the Vienna Basin
  • U-series dating and paleomagnetic analysis of Early–Middle Pleistocene deposits were conducted


Empirical roughness coefficients for moderate floods in an open conduit cave: Fullers stream canyon, Culverson Creek Cave System, West Virginia
Lydia T. Albright and Gregory S. Springer

  • Open-conduit Mannings roughness coefficients were empirically determined
  • Head losses were measured using instruments recording water stages
  • Roughness was inversely proportional to discharge in the cave stream
  • Roughness coefficients are highest amid breakdown
  • Lowest roughness values were for cobble-floored canyon passages


Absence of visitors during lockdown reveals natural variation in carbon dioxide level in the Glowworm Cave, Waitomo, New Zealand
David J. Merritt, Chris Hendy Dr, and Shannon Corkill Ms

  • We assess the natural microclimate of the cave over 60 days with no visitation
  • Visitors increased the cave temperature but the effect was short-lived due to cave ventilation
  • During lockdown, the usual daily increase in carbon dioxide due to visitors was absent
  • The partial pressure of carbon dioxide level naturally lies above the external atmospheric levels
  • Rain and flood events led to increases in carbon dioxide partial pressure


Speleothems in sandstone crevice and boulder caves of the Elbe River Canyon, Czech Republic
Jiří Adamovič, Jaroslav Kukla, Michal Filippi, Roman Skála, and Noemi Mészárosová

  • Documentation of speleothems in crevice and boulder caves in the Elbe River Canyon
  • Complementary instrumental mineralogical methods applied
  • First description of coralloid silica speleothems from European sandstones
  • Three other speleothem types of contrasting geneses recognized