Volume 48, Issue 1 (2019)

Cover and Front Matter



Sulfur (34S/32S) isotope composition of gypsum and implications for deep cave formation on the Nullarbor Plain, Australia
Matej Lipar, Mateja Ferk, Sonja Lojen, and Milo Barham

  • Gypsum appears in caves on the Nullarbor Plain
  • δ34S of gypsum shows relatively high positive δ34S values
  • Cave sulphate minerals are evaporates


A review of fractals in karst
Eulogio Pardo-Igúzquiza, Peter A. Dowd, Juan J. Durán, and Pedro Robledo-Ardila

  • Scale-invariance, self-similarity and universality are ubiquitous in karst
  • Fractal can be found in the exokarst and the endokarst
  • Fractals are also found in karst hydrogeology
  • Hypotheses and conjectures about the origin of such behavior are proposed


ISOLUTION 1.0: an ISOtope evoLUTION model describing the stable oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values of speleothems
Michael Deininger and Denis Scholz

  • A speleothem proxy system model for stable oxygen and carbon isotopes
  • Modeling of disequilibrium isotope fractionation processes in speleothems
  • Modeling of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in dependence on cave parameters


Fifty years of cave arthropod sampling: techniques and best practices
J. Judson Wynne, Francis G. Howarth, Stefan Sommer, and Brett G. Dickson

  • 110 papers examined (from 1967 - 2018) to explore how cave-dwelling invertebrates were sampled
  • A summary of techniques most commonly applied and appropriateness of these techniques is provided
  • Nearly one-half of the studies applied systematic techniques
  • Few papers provided enough information to repeat the study
  • Inconsistencies in sampling techniques nomenclature observed


Cyanobacterial and algal abundance and biomass in cave biofilms and relation to environmental and biofilm parameters
Slađana Popović, Nataša Nikolić, Jelena Jovanović, Dragana Predojević, Ivana Trbojević, Ljiljana Manić, and Gordana Subakov Simić

  • Study describes method for determination of cyanobacterial and algal abundance and biomass from cave biofilms
  • Environmental parameters, distance of the sampling site from the entrance, as well as biofilm parameters (content of water (WC), organic (OM), and inorganic (IM) matter) were also determined
  • The relationship of cyanobacterial and algal biomass with other parameters was established using statistical analyses


Cave dripwater isotopic signals related to the altitudinal gradient of Mount-Lebanon: implication for speleothem studies
Carole Nehme, Sophie Verheyden, Fadi H. Nader, Jocelyne Adjizian-Gerard, Dominique Genty, Kevin De Bont, Benedicte Minster, Ghada Salem, David Verstraten, and Philippe Clayes

  • Cave dripwater isotopic values in agreement with the rainwater trendline of Lebanon
  • The altitudinal trend in the rainwater is demonstrated in cave dripwater
  • Cave dripwater trendline more significant when the infiltration basin is considered


Guano-related phosphate-rich minerals in European caves
Philippe Audra, Jo De Waele, Ilham Bentaleb, Alica Chroňáková, Václav Krištůfek, Ilenia M. D'Angeli, Cristina Carbone, Giuliana Madonia, Marco Vattano, Giovanna Scopelliti, Didier Cailhol, Nathalie Vanara, Marjan Temovski, Jean-Yves Bigot, Jean-Claude Nobécourt, Ermanno Galli, Fernando Rull, and Aurelio Sanz-Arranz

  • 17 guano-related phosphates and 1 sulfate were identified in 22 European cave systems
  • 3 types of phosphates are present: precursors on fresh decaying guano; apatite-group minerals; and Al-, K-, Fe-, Mn-bearing phosphates
  • Spheniscidite and robertsite are the only known occurrence of these minerals in caves worldwide
  • Gypsum is often present, especially in dry environment
  • Radiometric guano dating shows ages up to 7000 years and deposition can be continuous over 1000 years