Volume 47, Issue 3 (2018)

Cover and Front Matter

Hypogene Karstification


Spar caves as fossil hydrothermal systems: Timing and origin of ore deposits in the Delaware Basin and Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico and Texas, USA
David D. Decker, Victor J. Polyak, and Yemane Asmerom

  • Spar caves and cave spar form at a spar horizon
  • The depth and temperature of the spar horizon is 500 ± 250 m and 40 to 80°C
  • This temperature overlaps hydrothermal ore deposition and oil maturation temperature
  • Evidence for geothermal systems erodes away, spar caves provide evidence of existence
  • Spar caves may help to locate hydrothermal ore deposits


New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves
Ilenia M. D'Angeli, Cristina Carbone, Maria Nagostinis, Mario Parise, Marco Vattano, Giuliana Madonia, and Jo De Waele

  • Detailed description of fifteen sulfuric acid cave systems of Italy from mineralogical point of view
  • XRD and SEM investigation of yellowish and whitish deposits abundantly present in those SAS underground environments
  • Finding of 59 minerals strictly related to sulfuric acid speleogenesis
  • Interesting association of alunite-jarosite deposits with Ti-rich minerals and phosphates
  • Identification of hydrothemal hypogene origin through the study of geochemical signatures


Unconfined hypogene evaporite karst: West Texas and southeastern New Mexico, USA
Kevin W. Stafford, Jon T. Ehrhart, Adam F. Majzoub, Jessica M. Shields, and Wesley A. Brown

  • Hypergene and hypogene processes have created a complex speleogenetic history for the Delaware Basin
  • Unconfined hypogene evaporite karst occurs as artesian-like discharge features and venting structures within the Delaware Basin
  • Electrical resistivity analyses coupled with field excavations confirm speleogenetic models based on surficial manifestations
  • Diverse evaporite karst manifestations create complex geohazards within the Delaware Basin


Old and recent processes in a warm and humid desert hypogene cave: ‘A’rak Na‘asane, Israel
Amos Frumkin, Shlomi Aharon, Uri Davidovich, Boaz Langford, Yoav Negev, Micka Ullman, Anton Vaks, Shemesh Ya‘aran, and Boaz Zissu

  • A desert relict hypogene cave can support high humidity
  • Intensive condensation corrosion by air convection
  • The humid, warm environment supports specific ecosystem
  • The humid, warm environment unfavors human use


Interpreting the origin and evolution of ‘karst’ features from a siliceous hydrothermal terrane: A case study from the Upper Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park, USA
Kevin W. Blackwood, Lainee A. Sanders, and Stacy I. Gantt-Blackwood

  • Hydrothermal features in Yellowstone National Park may be products of hypogene speleogenesis
  • The resulting hypogene morphologies may play a vital role geyser function and development
  • Many concepts used to study karst may be applicable in studies of these hydrothermal features
  • Managing these features as a form of karst may improve management of these natural resources


Evolution of noble gas and water isotopes along the regional groundwater flow path of the Konya Closed Basin, Turkey
N. Nur Ozyurt and C. Serdar Bayari

  • Isotopes of dissolved helium may help understanding hypogene karstification
  • Magmatism along suture zones seem to favor hypogene karst development
  • Hypogenesis may lead to formation of life threatening gigantic collapse dolines

Siliciclastic Karst


Evidence for subsurface origin of boulder caves, roofed slots and boulder-filled canyons (Broumov Highland, Czechia)
Filip Duszyński, Kacper Jancewicz, and Piotr Migoń

  • Extensive boulder fills of canyon floors interpreted as residual materials
  • Subsidence into voids the likely process of origin of boulder fills, not rock fall
  • Boulders caves in canyons are not talus caves
  • Roofed slots provide analogy to explain larger landforms
  • Geomorphometry assists in characterizing geomorphic diversity of canyons


On biospeleothems from a Venezuelan tepui cave: U-Th dating, growth rates, and morphology
Joyce Lundberg, Charles Brewer-Carías, and Donald A. McFarlane

  • Seven silica biospeleothems have been U-Th dated
  • Growth rates are generally extremely slow
  • Growth rates are higher closer to water level
  • Detrital bands correlate with cooler, drier times of the Late Quaternary
  • Secondary alteration may compromise dates


The Cyrilka Cave—the longest crevice-type cave in Czechia: structural controls, genesis, and age
Jan Lenart, Martin Kašing, Petr Tábořík, Natalia Piotrowska, and Jacek Pawlyta

  • NNE-striking fissures and ENE-striking dextral fractures in the cave
  • Propagation of recent sinistral strike-slips
  • first 3-D ERT survey in the incoherent sedimentary flysch rocks
  • Possible retrograde evolution of the deep-seated landslide
  • Radiocarbon dating revealed possible Late-Pleistocene age of the cave


Merging the concepts of pseudokarst and paleoseismicity in Sweden: A unified theory on the formation of fractures, fracture caves, and angular block heaps
Nils-Axel Mörner and Rabbe Sjöberg

  • Merging concepts of pseudokarst and paleoseismicity
  • Unified theory of seismicity and cave formation
  • Methane venting tectonics and cave formation


The role of mites in the construction and weathering of siliceous biospeleothems
María José López-Galindo

  • Siliceous speleothems can be developed between granite boulders
  • Siliceous speleothems have a needed biological stage in their development
  • A previously undescribed mite species participate in their construction and weathering
  • Mites are able to excavate niches in the speleothem to complete their life cycles
  • They secrete silk and have a single claw in the form of a hook