• An overall description of tub-fed features within Tengchong basic lava flows.
  • Detailed investigation of the longest lava tube known ( Jingfudong lava tube) in Tengchong area.
  • Lave tube coalescence phenomenon in Jingfudong lava tube.
  • Interpretation the coalescence and bifurcation processes of tube system from the field evidences and models.
  • Implications for vertical behaviors within lava flows.


Tube-fed structure occurs as a general phenomenon in Tengchong basic lavas, such as lava tubes, lava plugs and tube-related collapse depressions. We deduced the development of Laoguipo lava flows, which is the longest lava tube (Jingfudong lava tube) evolved in Tengchong volcanic area. Following the detailed documentation of the tube morphology of the Jingfudong lava tube, we propose that the Jingfudong lava tube was formed through vertical coalescence of at least three tubes. The coalescence and bifurcation process are re-constructed by interpretation of tube floor continuity, the distribution of remnant tubes and the scales of lava tube branches (shapes of cross sections).

Keywords Tengchong volcanism; Laoguipo volcano; field investigation; lava tube; tube coalescence



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