In the past some authors described the speleogenetic role of convection in phreatic conditions. Similar effects exist also in the air-filled part of vadose passages of caves as a consequence of an air circulation due to a relevant temperature gradient; the effects can be enhanced by the presence of some acids as, e.g., H2S, H2SO4, etc. In this paper the conditions matching convection and condensation which produce typical forms, very similar to those found under phreatic conditions, are discussed both for limestone and gypsum caves.
Cigna, Arrigo A. and Paolo Forti.
The speleogenetic role of air flow caused by convection. 1st contribution.
International Journal of Speleology,
Available at: https://digitalcommons.usf.edu/ijs/vol15/iss1/3