The strong negative consequences caused by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic created the need for a scientific investigation of changes that occurred in the organizational culture of the hospitality industry. This research paper, using the Delphi method, served three purposes. It first assesses the changes that the COVID-19 pandemic has brought to selected cultural components (product, external relations, and entrepreneurship strategy) that shape a hotel’s organizational culture, and determines how it interacts with other stakeholders on an inter-organizational level. Secondly, it links these changes to the three directions of change: formal/revolutionary, informal/evolutionary, and hybrid. Thirdly, it suggests specific policies that help hotel managers better cope with the challenges posed by the COVID-19 era for the organizational culture of their hotel. The impact of the pandemic on the selected cultural components of a hotel’s organizational culture is extensive and to address them (by reducing the negative and strengthening the positive effects), hotels must implement policies aligned with the three directions of change. This research is scientifically original as it bridges a knowledge gap and holds practical value by helping hotel executives gain a deeper knowledge of strategies and tactics that will help them deal with the negative impacts of COVID-19 in specific areas of the organizational culture of their hotels.


human resources management, stakeholder theory, change management, formal/revolutionary direction of change, informal/evolutionary direction of change, hybrid direction of change

Chinese Abstract




ORCID Identifiers

Christos Kakarougkas: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4407-2378

Theodoros Stavrinoudis: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8329-8679

Moschos Psimoulis: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6458-4496



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License



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