Tropical Ecology and Conservation [Monteverde Institute]

Alternative Title

Efectos de las condiciones meteorológicas en el comportamiento de los polinizadores de Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Verbenaceae)

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Publication Date

November 2005

Abstract

Competition between pollinators, such as nectar-eating birds, bats, and small insects, plays an important role in understanding resource distribution among feeding guilds (Murray et al. 2000). This study suggested that territorial behaviors exhibited by hummingbirds are not hardwired, but rather, they may be affected by abiotic factors such as weather conditions. An individual may increase its energy budget through selective defense of a plant. Hummingbird and butterfly visits to and agonistic interactions (i.e. chases) at a Stachytarpheta jamaicensis plant were observed for a total of 40 hours and weather conditions were quantified. As the activity of butterflies (a competing species) increased in good weather, hummingbird defense of a plant decreased for species known to be territorial. Conversely, during adverse weather conditions, butterfly activity was depressed and energy used for defense of a plant was beneficial for hummingbirds. Observations showed that species typically known for traplining also displayed territorial behavior during these conditions. Multiple regression analyses showed that hummingbird visitation increased significantly as wind speed increased (R2 = 0.11, F = 0.05, p < 0.037, N= 668). Butterfly visitation increased significantly with an increase in light intensity (R2 = 0.55, F = 0.0001, p < 0.012, N= 926) and decreased with increased cloud cover (R2 = 0.55, F = 0.0001, p < 0.004, N= 926) and index of rainfall (R2 = 0.55, F = 0.0001, p < 0.008, N= 926). One-way ANOVAs showed that there were significant differences between the number of interactions and all weather parameters (temperature F = 76.14, p < 0.0001, df = 152; light F = 29.57, p < 0.0001, df = 123; wind F = 9.66, p < 0.0001, df = 123; cloud F = 24.00, p < 0.0001, df = 123; rain F = 13.44, p < 0.0001, df = 123). La competencia entre los polinizadores, como las aves, los murciélagos y los insectos pequeños que son nectarívoros, son una parte integral de la distribución de los recursos entre los gremios (Murray et al. 2000). Este estudio sugirió que los caracteres territoriales exhibidos por los colibríes no son completamente innatos; por el contrario, son modificados por condiciones abióticas como el clima. El individuo puede aumentar su presupuesto energético por medio de la defensa selectiva de una planta. Las visitas e interacciones agonísticas (persecución) por los colibríes y las mariposas en una planta de Stachytarpheta jamaicensis fueron observadas durante un total de 40 horas y las condiciones climáticas fueron cuantificadas. Cuando la actividad de las mariposas (un competidor de colibríes) aumentó durante el clima óptimo, la defensa de una planta por los colibríes disminuyó en el caso de las especies territoriales. Por el contrario, durante el clima desfavorable, la actividad de las mariposas disminuyó y la energía usada para defender las plantas benefició a los colibríes. Se observó que las especies conocidas como colibríes errantes también mostraron un carácter territorial durante estas condiciones. Los análisis de regresiones múltiples encontraron que las visitas de los colibríes aumentaron con el incremento en la velocidad del viento (R2 = 0.11, F = 0.05, p < 0.037, N= 668). Las visitas de las mariposas aumentaron con el aumento en la intensidad de la luz (R2 = 0.55, F = 0.0001, p < 0.012, N= 926) y disminuyeron con el aumento del índice de nubosidad (R2 = 0.55, F = 0.0001, p < 0.004, N= 926) y de precipitación (R2 = 0.55, F = 0.0001, p < 0.008, N= 926). Los análisis de varianza mostraron diferencias significativas entre el número de interacciones y todos los parámetros del clima (temperatura F = 76.14, p < 0.0001, df = 152; luz F = 29.57, p < 0.0001, df = 123; viento F = 9.66, p < 0.0001, df = 123; nubosidad F = 24.00, p < 0.0001, df = 123; precipitación F = 13.44, p < 0.0001, df = 123).

Keywords

Pollinators, Polinizadores, Hummingbirds, Colibries, Costa Rica--Guanacaste--Cañitas, CIEE Fall 2005, CIEE Otoño 2005

Description

Student affiliation : Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison Born Digital

Subject: topical

Pollinators; Polinizadores; Hummingbirds; Colibries; CIEE Fall 2005; CIEE Otoño 2005

Subject: geographic

Costa Rica--Guanacaste--Cañitas

Genre

Reports

Holding Location

Monteverde Institute MVI

Identifier

M39-00260

Effects of weather conditions on pollinator behavior at Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Verbenaceae)

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