Mean Levels and Correlates of Perfectionism in International Baccalaureate and General Education Students

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perfectionism, international baccalaureate, almost-perfect scale revised, life satisfaction, anxiety

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)



This exploratory study examined the mean levels of perfectionism among 178 general education students and 141 students enrolled in the International Baccalaureate (IB) program, a rigorous academic curriculum. The study also explored perfectionism in relation to grade level and student outcomes (psychological functioning, academic achievement). Results of independent t-tests and one-way ANOVAs indicated higher levels of adaptive perfectionism and lower levels of maladaptive perfectionism among IB students, as well as a significant decrease in mean levels of adaptive perfectionism and increases in maladaptive perfectionism by grade level among IB students. Among both groups of high school students, maladaptive perfectionism was linked to greater anxiety and lower GPAs; IB students evidenced a particularly strong inverse relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and global life satisfaction. Adaptive perfectionism was moderately correlated with academic achievement, as well as associated with greater life satisfaction especially for general education students. Maladaptive perfectionism did not moderate any relationships between adaptive perfectionism and student outcomes.

Citation / Publisher Attribution

High Ability Studies, v. 22, issue 1, p. 61-77