Measurement Equivalence of a German Job Satisfaction Survey used in a Multinational Organization: Implications of Schwartz’s Culture Model

Document Type


Publication Date


Digital Object Identifier (DOI)



The authors tested measurement equivalence of the German Job Satisfaction Survey (GJSS) using structural equation modeling methodology. Employees from 18 countries and areas provided data on 5 job satisfaction facets. The effects of language and culture on measurement equivalence were examined. A cultural distance hypothesis, based on S. H. Schwartz's (1999) theory, was tested with 4 cultural groups: West Europe, English speaking, Latin America, and Far East. Findings indicated the robustness of the GJSS in terms of measurement equivalence across countries. The survey maintained high transportability across countries speaking the same language and countries sharing similar cultural backgrounds. Consistent with Schwartz's model, a cultural distance effect on scale transportability among scales used in maximally dissimilar cultures was detected. Scales used in the West Europe group showed greater equivalence to scales used in the English-speaking and Latin America groups than scales used in the Far East group.

Was this content written or created while at USF?


Citation / Publisher Attribution

Journal of Applied Psychology, v. 86, issue 6, p. 1070-1082