An International Study of the Psychometric Properties of the Hofstede Values Survey Module 1994: A Comparison of Individual and Country/Province Level Results

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Hofstede’s Values Survey Module has been the basis for much cross‐cultural and cross‐national research in the workplace, but little information about its psychometric properties has been available. This study provides internal consistency (coefficient alpha) statistics from samples representing 23 nations/provinces. Across both English and translated versions, internal consistencies tended to be poor, and in the majority of cases failed to achieve even a liberal criterion of 0.60. Even when data were aggregated by sample coefficient alphas were poor for all but long‐term orientation. At the participant level, long‐term orientation and individualism had marginal internal consistencies, whereas power distance, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance subscales had inadequate internal consistencies. A replication of Hofstede’s ecological factor analysis failed to support the five subscales. It is suggested that the construct validity of these scales is suspect, and that they should be used with caution.


Complete list of authors: Peggy Bernin, Andre Büssing, Phil Dewe, Luo Lu, Karen Miller, Lucio Renault de Moraes, Michael O'Driscoll, Milan Pagon, Horia Pitariu, Steven Poelmans, Phani Radhakrishnan, Vesselina Russinova, Vladimir Salamatov, Jesus Salgado, Juan I. Sanchez, Satoru Shima, Oi Ling Siu, Jean Benjamin Stora, Mare Teichmann, Töres Theorell, Peter Vlerick, Mina Westman, Maria Widerszal-Bazyl, Paul Wong & Shanfa Yu

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Applied Psychology, v. 50, issue 2, p. 269-281