Breast and Chest Size Satisfaction: Relation to Overall Body Image and Self-Esteem

Document Type


Publication Date


Digital Object Identifier (DOI)



Multiple ratings of breast and chest size preferences were assessed in 68 male and 120 female undergraduates and related to overall levels of appearance satisfaction, body image anxiety, and general self-esteem. Discrepancies between personal ideals, perceived ideals of the opposite sex, and current size ratings were differentially related, by gender, to other disturbance measures. For all analyses, the direction of associations was clear, indicating that among men chest discrepancies (indicative of dissatisfaction) were positively associated with body image disturbance and low self-esteem: among women, breast discrepancies were not related to these measures. The findings strongly support emerging research suggesting that the chest area is a site of dissatisfaction for men. The results are discussed in relation to possible cultural reasons for the gender differences found in this investigation as well as potential links between dissatisfaction with upper torso and unhealthy eating behaviors.

Was this content written or created while at USF?


Citation / Publisher Attribution

Eating Disorders, v. 8, issue 3, p. 241-246