Implication of the Kallikrein-Kinin System in Neurological Disorders: Quest for Potential Biomarkers and Mechanisms

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Kallikrein-Kinin system, Bradykinin, Kinin, Brain injury, Neurological disorders, Biomarkers

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Neurological disorders represent major health concerns in terms of comorbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite a tremendous increase in our understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression and prevention, the accumulated knowledge so far resulted in relatively moderate translational benefits in terms of therapeutic interventions and enhanced clinical outcomes. Aiming at specific neural molecular pathways, different strategies have been geared to target the development and progression of such disorders. The kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) is among the most delineated candidate systems due to its ubiquitous roles mediating several of the pathophysiological features of these neurological disorders as well as being implicated in regulating various brain functions. Several experimental KKS models revealed that the inhibition or stimulation of the two receptors of the KKS system (B1R and B2R) can exhibit neuroprotective and/or adverse pathological outcomes. This updated review provides background details of the KKS components and their functions in different neurological disorders including temporal lobe epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, stroke, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis and glioma. Finally, this work will highlight the putative roles of the KKS components as potential neurotherapeutic targets and provide future perspectives on the possibility of translating these findings into potential clinical biomarkers in neurological disease.

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Progress in Neurobiology, v. 165-167, p. 26-50