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Context. Leiomyosarcomas are rare malignant smooth muscle tumors that may arise in any organ or tissue that contains smooth muscle, commonly within the gastrointestinal tract. They are most often found in the stomach, large and small intestines, and retroperitoneum. Primary pancreatic leiomyosarcoma is extremely rare, and to the best of our knowledge only 30 cases have been reported in the world literature since 1951. Our case represents the first to have a clear origin from the main pancreatic duct. Case Report. This case was diagnosed in a large, tertiary care center in Tampa, Florida. Pertinent information was obtained from chart review and interdepartmental collaboration. A mass in the tail of the pancreas was identified with large pleomorphic and spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemistry for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and desmin was positive. All remaining immunohistochemical markers performed were negative. The tumor clearly originated from the pancreatic duct wall, filled and expanded the duct lumen, and was covered with a layer of benign biliary epithelium. Conclusion. Leiomyosarcoma of the pancreas is an extremely rare malignancy with few reported cases in the literature. The prognosis is poor, and treatment consists of alleviating symptoms and pain management. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported case demonstrating clear origin of a leiomyosarcoma from the pancreatic duct.

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Case Reports in Medicine, v. 2010, art. 252364