Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2012

Abstract

Dyskinesia, a major complication of treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), involves two phases: induction, which is responsible for dyskinesia onset, and expression, which underlies its clinical manifestation. The unique cellular and regional distribution of adenosine receptors in basal ganglia areas that are richly innervated by dopamine, and their antagonistic role towards dopamine receptor stimulation, have positioned receptor antagonists as an attractive nondopaminergic target to improve the motor deficits that characterize PD. In this paper, we describe the biochemical characteristics of receptors and the effects of adenosine antagonists in rodent and primate models of PD on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, together with relevant biomarker studies. We also review clinical trials of antagonists as adjuncts to L-DOPA in PD patients with motor fluctuations. These studies have generally demonstrated that the addition of an antagonist to a stable L-DOPA regimen reduces OFF time and mildly increases dyskinesia. However, limited clinical data suggest that the addition of an antagonist along with a reduction of L-DOPA might maintain anti-Parkinsonian benefit and reduce dyskinesia. Whether antagonists might reduce the development of dyskinesia has not yet been tested clinically.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/489853

Rights Information

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Citation / Publisher Attribution

Parkinson’s Disease, v. 2012, art. 489853

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