Insonation Method and Diagnostic Flow Signatures for Transcranial Power Motion (M-Mode) Doppler

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transcranial Doppler, thrombolysis, stroke, recanalization


Background and purpose. Power motion mode Doppler (PMD) simultaneously displays flow signal intensity and direction over several centimeters of intracranial space. Insonation protocol for PMD and spectral transcranial Doppler (TCD) with typical PMD flow signatures is described in serial patients with acute stroke symptoms examined via conventional windows with a PMD/ TCD unit. Results. Thirty-five patients were studied within 12 hours after stroke onset (age 64 ±15 years; 8 received intravenous and 3 intra-arterial thrombolysis). One patient had no temporal window, and 3 patients had suboptimal windows. In 90% of patients, PMD showed more than 1 ipsilateral temporal windows. In 63% of patients (n= 22), PMD simultaneously displayed the entire M1 (65–45 mm) and proximal M2 (45–30 mm) flows, leading to spectral TCD examination of the proximal M2 middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 28 of 35 patients (80%). All patients had sufficient foraminal (depth display = 60–110 mm) and orbital (depth display = 30–80 mm) windows. PMD displayed the entire basilar artery stem (75–100+ mm) in 69% (n= 24) of patients, and the distal basilar flow was detected in all patients by both PMD and TCD. TCD results were normal (12), proximal intracranial stenosis (5), large vessel occlusion (17), and cerebral circulatory arrest (1). Compared to spectral TCD, PMD signatures of similar diagnostic significance were low resistance (vessel identification and recanalization), high resistance (ophthalmic artery identification and distal obstruction), collateral (communicating arteries and leptomeningeal flow), reverberating (circulatory arrest), and branch embolization. Conclusions. PMD is a window-finding tool and a guide for spectral TCD gate placement. PMD facilitates flow detection in the M2 branches and the distal basilar artery. PMD can demonstrate recanalization of the entire MCA main stem and proximal branches, increase the yield of embolus detection and procedure monitoring, and facilitate abnormal flow pattern recognition.

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Journal of Neuroimaging, v. 12, issue 3, p. 236-244

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