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Transcription Factor Cp2c Complexes, DNA Binding Motifs, Subcellular Localization, Transcriptional Regulation, Therapeutics

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CP2c, also known as TFCP2, α-CP2, LSF, and LBP-1c, is a prototypic member of the transcription factor (TF) CP2 subfamily involved in diverse ubiquitous and tissue/stage-specific cellular processes and in human malignancies including cancer. Despite its importance, many fundamental regulatory mechanisms of CP2c are still unclear. Here, we uncover unprecedented structural and functional aspects of CP2c using DSP crosslinking and Western blot in addition to conventional methods. We found that a monomeric form of a CP2c homotetramer (tCP2c; [C4]) binds to the known CP2c-binding DNA motif (CNRG-N(5~6)-CNRG), whereas a dimeric form of a CP2c, CP2b, and PIAS1 heterohexamer ([C2B2P2]2) binds to the three consecutive CP2c half-sites or two staggered CP2c binding motifs, where the [C4] exerts a pioneering function for recruiting the [C2B2P2]2 to the target. All CP2c exists as a [C4], or as a [C2B2P2]2 or [C2B2P2]4 in the nucleus. Importantly, one additional cytosolic heterotetrameric CP2c and CP2a complex, ([C2A2]), exerts some homeostatic regulation of the nuclear complexes. These data indicate that these findings are essential for the transcriptional regulation of CP2c in cells within relevant timescales, providing clues not only for the transcriptional regulation mechanism by CP2c but also for future therapeutics targeting CP2c function.

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International Journal of Molecular Sciences, v. 23, issue 12, art. 6369