Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Activities of Camel Lactoferrins Against Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi

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Antimicrobial, Bovine and human lactoferrins, Camel lactoferrin, Salmonella Typhi, Synergy

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Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein present in various secretions (e.g., milk, tears, saliva, pancreatic juice), which performs multiple functions, with one of them being the antimicrobial defense. Purified camel lactoferrins (cLfs) from different Saudi camel clans, as well as human and bovine lactoferrins (hLf or bLf) were tested as antimicrobial agents against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). All cLfs showed superior antibacterial potentials relative to hLf or bLf, while there was no noticeable difference in the antimicrobial capabilities between the cLfs from different camel clans. We observed synergy between the inhibitory activities of Lfs and antibiotics against bacterial growth. Expression of numerous bacterial proteins was affected by the treatment with Lf and its combinations, giving insight into the molecular mechanisms of the Lf action. Furthermore, several bacterial proteins were shown to interact with cLf-biotin. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of obvious extracellular and intracellular changes after S. Typhi treatment by antibiotic (carbenicillin) or cLf alone, and in combination. The effects of antibiotics and Lf were synergistic, supporting the potential of the use of Lf-antibiotic combinations.

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Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins, v. 12, p. 18-31