Caves as biological spaces
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Caves are defined as natural underground or underwater hollow places with an opening. Depending upon their geologic origin, caves can be classified as limestone (karstic), sandstone, hydrothermal, lava, glacier, or tectonic. The total number of caves of all types around the world has been estimated in several hundred of thousands. Given that number it is not surprising that tens of thousands of biological species have been described in such environments. There is little doubt that caves and other hypogean (subterranean) environments represent unique spaces in the phenomenon of life. The aim of this article is to discuss caves as biological spaces.
Hypogean Environments, Biological Diversity
Vol. 2, no. 3 (2012-01-01).
Romero, Aldemaro, "Caves as biological spaces" (2012). KIP Articles. 825.