Systematic review of the neotropical family stygnidae: (opiliones, laniatores, gonyleptoidea)

Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha


The family Stygnidae is reviewed. Its species have been recorded in central-northern South America above the Tropic of Capricorn (except in Chile and in Paraguay) and Lesser Antilles. A new classification is herein proposed based on a cladistic analysis using 35 terminals and 50 characters of external morphology and male genitalia. The eight equally parsimonious trees obtained (length = 156; CI= 46; RI= 78) are summarized by a strict consensus tree which forms the basis of the supraspecific classification. Three subfamilies are recognized as monophyletic, Nomoclastinae, Heterostygninae and Stygninae, including in all 26 genera and 73 species. Phareinae and Ideostygninae are synony-mizedwith Stygninae. Gaibulus Roewer, 1943 is considered incertae sedis, because in four trees it is the sister group of Stygninae while in the other four trees it is the sister group of Heterostygninae. Styphelus Simon, 1879 and S. flavitarsis Simon, 1879 are transferred from the Stygninae to the Heterostygninae. Pickeliana Mello-Leitão, 1932 is revalidated from the synonym of Protimesius. Ortonia Wood, 1879 and O.ferox Wood, 1879 are considered genus and species inquerendae. The following new combinations are proposed: Innoxius magnus (Caporiacco, 1951); Eutimesius ephippiatus (Roewer, 1915); E. albicinctus (Roewer, 1915); E. ornatus (Roewer, 1943); Stygnoplus clavotibialis (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1947); S. longipalpus (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942); S. tuberculatus (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942); S. flavitarsis (Simon, 1879); S. antiguanus (Roewer, 1943); S. dominicanus (Roewer, 1943); Pickeliana capito (Soares & Soares, 1974); Pickeliana pickeli Mello-Leitão, 1932; Protimesius mendopticus (H.Soares, 1978); P. laevis (Sorensen, 1932); P. evelineae (Soares & Soares, 1978); P. albilineatus (Roewer, 1957); P. amplichelis (Roewer, 1931); Verrucastygnus caliginosus (Pinto-da-Rocha, 1990); Kaapora minutissimus (Roewer, 1943); Sickesia usta (Mello-Leitão, 1941); Stygnus aggerum Sorensen, 1932; S. ferrugineus (Perty, 1833); S. gertschi (Roewer