A systematic revision of Goniosomatinae (Arachnida : Opiliones : Gonyleptidae), with a cladistic analysis and biogeographical notes
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Goniosomatine harvestmen have strongly armed pedipalps, generally large bodies and, commonly, very long legs (sometimes more than 20 cm), and are distributed in the Brazilian Atlantic forest, from southern Bahia to Santa Catarina. Since they are conspicuous animals and individuals of some species tend to concentrate in caves (and also under rock boulders), they have been (and still are) the target of several studies, especially those focusing on reproductive and defensive behavior, population ecology, physiology, chromosomes, etc. In spite of their importance for biological studies (some species constitute important and frequently used models for these studies), the taxonomy of Goniosomatinae has faced some problems, including misidentification, a large number of undescribed species and the lack of a phylogenetic hypothesis for the relationships among its species (which would allow evolutionary studies to be made). The last taxonomic changes in the subfamily were made 60 years ago. Considering a taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of the subfamily to be of paramount importance, the main scope of the present paper is to provide a cladistic analysis and taxonomic revision of the species of Goniosomatinae and a new arrangement of genera (and species). The main taxonomic changes are given as follows. Six genera are recognised within the subfamily: Goniosoma; the newly described genus Pyatan; the reestablished genera Serracutisoma, Heteromitobates and Mitogoniella; and Acutisoma. New generic synonyms include: Glyptogoniosoma = Goniosomella = Lyogoniosoma = Metalyogoniosoma = Xulapona = Goniosoma, Acutisomelloides = Pygosomoides = Spelaeosoma = Serracutisoma; and Acutisomella = Heteromitobates. Newly described species include: Goniosoma capixaba; G. apoain; Pyatan insperatumDaSilva, Stefanini-Jim & Gnaspini; Serracutisoma pseudovarium; S. fritzmuelleri; S. guaricana; Heteromitobates anarchus; H. harlequin; H. alienus; Mitogoniella taquara; M. unicornis; and Acutisoma coriaceum. New combinations include: Goniosoma