A new family of Gonyleptoidea from South America (Opiliones, Laniatores)
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A new family of Laniatores, Gerdesiidae fam. nov., is proposed based on molecular and morphological evidence. Data also indicate that this new family is the sister family of Tricommatidae. Gerdesiidae fam. nov. has a disjunct distribution, occurring in northern South America (Peru, Brazilian Amazon) and at a spot in south-eastern Brazil (Minas Gerais State). The new family is composed of two genera: Gerdesius Roewer, 1952 (type genus) and Gonycranaus gen. nov. (type species Gonycranaus androgynus sp. nov.). We propose the synonymy of Huralvioides H. Soares, 1970 with Gerdesius Roewer, 1952 based on molecular and morphological evidence. Three new species are described: Gerdesius mapinguari sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Manaus, Reserva Km 41); Gonycranaus androgynus sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Conceição do Mato Dentro); and an obligate cave-dwelling species, Gonycranaus pluto sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais, Morro do Pilar).