Faune des eaux souterraines saumâtres de l'Asie Centrale
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In the cave Kaptar-Khana (south-western Turkmenistan) was discovered a lake filled with water with a salinity of 11,68‰. This lake is inhabited by a fauna of marine origin - Foraminifera (three species), Molluscs (Pseudocaspia ljovuschkini sp.n.), Harpacticoida (genera Ectinosoma, Schizopera and Nitocra), Isopoda (Microcharon halophilus sp.n.) and possibly Nematoda (Oncholaimidae). The majority of the discovered species are related to species of circum-Mediterranean origin. Geological data do not permit to consider this fauna as a relict of any of the tertiary seas. The same applies to all other cases when animals of marine origin were discovered in subterranean waters of Central Asia (as for instance Microcharon kirghisicus Jank. on the shores of the lake Issyk-Kul). We can either admit a far greater anciennity of this fauna or an ability of its components to disperse very widely beyond the boundaries of marine transgressions.
International Journal of Speleology, Vol. 1, no. 3 (1964).
Birstein, J. and Ljovuschkin, S., "Faune des eaux souterraines saumâtres de l'Asie Centrale" (1964). KIP Articles. 2121.