Genocide, rape victims, youth born of Tutsi rape, social exclusion, Rwanda.

Content Language



This article explains social exclusion issues of youth born of rape during the 1994 Genocide after 26 years of genocide. Their social exclusion is exclusively related to the circumstances under which they were conceived and born and living with a neglected identity that is associated with Hutu killers. Thus, the research problem centered on their identity issue which leads to their social exclusion. The research approach was qualitative in nature where data was collected through individual interviews with 81 respondents and a review of existing literature. The study used social exclusion theory to contextualize the life experiences of the youth born of rape during the genocide. Findings indicate that children are continuously perceived as ‘children of genocide perpetrators’, ‘children of killers’, ‘children of Hutus’ ‘little killers’, or ‘evil children – so they exist with identity complex and inferiority. Though their identity was not a result of their own making, findings indicate majority are not legally or socially recognized either on the maternal or paternal sides. As a result of these life experiences, they suffer from abuse, internalized stigma, hurt feelings, abandonment, discrimination, and marginalization due to the circumstances they were born as children of Hutu killers. Gradually, they are losing self-esteem; they lack meaningful existence and belongingness due to structural family and societal social exclusion.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.