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Background: Caring for hospitalized patients with infective endocarditis (IE) can be challenging due to the nature of the disease and its complications, underlying medical and psychiatric problems, socioeconomic status and environmental factors.Some of these patients develop recurrent IE after the first episode treated. On-going intravenous (IV) drug use after hospital discharge is the highest predictive factor for recurrent IE. Besides IV drug use, there are limited data of other contributing factors to recurrent IE. Those factors may be modifiable during the first hospitalization to reduce the incidence of recurrent IE.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a large tertiary acute care medical center in Tampa, Florida. All consecutive patients with IE with history of IV drug use from January, 2011 to December, 2017 were included. Basic demographic information, co-morbidities (diabetes, hypertension, chronic lung and kidney diseases, HIV, Hepatitis B and C status, coronary artery diseases), valves involved, length of stay, complications at their first IE episode such as septic shock and stroke were included. Groups were identified based on the first episode, first recurrence and second or more recurrences of IE.

Results: A total of 106 patients were identified based on the inclusion criteria. The association between the type of valve infection (right side and left side) and IE recurrence was found to be statistically significant. (P = 0.003). Right side valves are prone to have recurrent IE episodes. People with recurrent IE were more likely to have septic shock (P = 0.02) and requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admissions (P < 0.001) during their first episode There was no statistically significant difference between other demographic information and recurrent endocarditis as well as other parameters such as organisms or type of substance used. (Table 1)

Conclusion: Right-sided IE and presence of septic shock during their first episode of IE may be the predictors for recurrent IE. Interventions including closer follow-up, more aggressive septic shock recognition and management, socioeconomic assessment in addition to substance abuse treatments after discharge should be considered to prevent recurrent IE.

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Open Forum Infectious Diseases, v. 6, issue Supplement_2, p. S109