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Background: Although the rate of tuberculosis (TB) has significantly declined in the United States, elimination has plateaued. Florida is one of the states with the greatest number of cases. The majority of cases occur in foreign-born individuals. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also a major contributor. HIV-TB coinfection leads to reciprocal interactions with significant clinical impact. We aim to compare the risk factors, clinical findings, and outcomes among HIV-infected vs. HIV uninfected patients.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study of TB cases over a 5 year period (2012–2017) was conducted. All patients with HIV co-infection with age- and gender-matched HIV negative controls were included. The diagnosis of TB was made via clinical, microbiological, radiological, and/or PCR based methods. SPSS was used for statistical data analysis.
Results: A total of 411 TB cases were identified and 66 patients (33 HIV-infected plus 33 HIV un-infected) were eligible for inclusion. The median age was 49 years (range 22–70). The male to female ratio was 21:12 and 50% of patients had TB symptoms; the rest had abnormal imaging or lab finding. Cases were confirmed via positive sputum smear, culture, or PCR (Figures 1–3). Only 11 patients were lost to follow-up, thus 83.3% completed therapy. A total of 5 persons died (Table 1).
Conclusion: The rate of HIV-TB coinfection in the United States was 5.3% in 2018; higher among injection drugs users, homeless persons, inmates, and alcoholics. In our study, the rate of HIV-TB coinfection was slightly higher (8%). The difference was not statistically significant in regards to foreign born, homelessness, and incarceration. Only 3 patients admitted to injection drug use and 9 used alcohol (all HIV negative). Traditionally, HIV-TB coinfected patients have extra-pulmonary TB with higher rates of negative sputum and are at increased risk of death. In our cohort, the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.009) only for cavitary TB (predominated in HIV un-infected) but no difference in outcomes was observed between the two groups. These findings suggest changing trends in HIV-TB coinfection which may be partly related to our setting and demographics but may be attributed to better access to care and antiretroviral therapy at large.
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Citation / Publisher Attribution
Open Forum Infectious Diseases, v. 6, issue Supplement_2, p. S194
Scholar Commons Citation
Moore-Pardo, Shylah M.; Addisu, Anteneh; Reljic, Tea; Aslam, Sadaf; and Casanas, Beata, "Comparing Trends and Outcomes among HIV-Infected vs. HIV Uninfected Patients with Tuberculosis: A 5-Year Experience Within the Florida Department of Health in Hillsborough County" (2019). Internal Medicine Faculty Publications. 171.