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HIV/AIDS malignancy

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The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1995 had a dramatic impact on the morbidity and mortality of the HIV population, and subsequently, the natural history of cancer has changed. The purpose of our study was to review the prevalence of AIDS-defining malignancies and non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC), taking into consideration racial and gender variations. After the institutional review board approval, the study was conducted as a retrospective chart review of 279 HIV-infected patients who were treated at the Moffitt Cancer Center between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. The demographic characteristics included gender, ethnicity, race, presence or absence of ART, and the type of malignancy reviewed. Of 233 men, 78 (33.5%) had AIDS-defining malignancies. AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was detected in 49 (21%) patients and Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in 29 (12%) patients. Two-thirds of male patients had NADC, with anal cancer being the most prevalent (8.5%), followed by Hodgkin lymphoma (6%). AIDS-related NHL was also the predominant malignancy for women with a prevalence of 19.5% followed by invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and breast cancer, both with a similar prevalence of 11%. Kaposi sarcoma and anal cancer were equally detected in 2% of women. The prevalence rates of AIDS-defining malignancies among those of white race were 34%, ranging from 21% for NHL to 13% for KS and 1.5% for ICC. Twenty-one (7.7%) patients had anal cancer. AIDS-defining malignancies were found in 36% of patients of black race and 60% had NHL. Non-AIDS-related NHL was the second most common malignancy, followed by breast cancer and anal cancer with a similar prevalence of 6.5%. Of 279 patients, 53% were taking ART; 39.4% were not taking ART; and in 7.5% of the patients, it was unknown if they were taking ART. In the ART era, our study found NADC to be more prevalent than AIDS-defining malignancies with 60% versus 40%, respectively. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma remained the most common AIDS-related malignancy in both genders. Among the patients with NADC, anal cancer was the predominant malignancy. The increasing incidence of some of the NADC is expected as this population is living longer with chronic exposure of viral replication of virus with oncogenic potential such as Human papillomavirus (HPV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Early ART initiation, aggressive vaccination, and judicious cancer screening are the cornerstone of cancer prevention of this growing population.

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Cancer Control, v. 25, issue 1, p. 1-6