USF St. Petersburg campus Honors Program Theses (Undergraduate)

First Advisor

Deby Cassill,Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Melanie Riedinger-­‐Whitmore, Ph.D., Associate Professor, College of Arts and Sciences, USFSP


University of South Florida St. Petersburg

Document Type


Date Available

May 2013

Publication Date


Date Issued

May 2013


“Life isn’t fair” is a phrase familiar to everyone. But to what extent do we really experience the bias that occurs in the natural world? Parental exploitation is a phenomenon occurring across the natural kingdom, but mostly absent in humans.


A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the University Honors Program, University of South Florida St. Petersburg.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.