Document Type

Oral History

Publication Date

December 2009

Creation Date


Publisher Information

Florida Holocaust Museum in conjunction with University of South Florida Tampa Library and Holocaust & Genocide Studies Center


Asaba (Nigeria), Chukwara, Emmanuel, Civil War, 1967-1970, Crimes against humanity, Massacres


Oral history interview with Emmanuel Chukwara, a survivor of the Asaba Massacre, a mass killing of civilians which occurred in 1967 during the Nigerian Civil War. When the Biafran soldiers crossed over to Nigeria, Chukwara took his wife and children across the Niger River to Onitsha, where his mother-in-law lived. Shortly after they left the shelling began, and when Chukwara returned to his house he found that his mother had been killed and that the rest of his family had gone to another village. His father left when the townspeople were called to welcome the troops, and when he did not return, Chukwara's brothers went to look for him. After the massacre, Chukwara went back to Onitsha and stayed there until the war ended. As his parents and four brothers died in the massacre, he raised his own children and those of his siblings. He is the brother-in-law of Patience Chukura, who was also interviewed for the project.

Physical Information

1 sound file (30 min.) : digital, MP3 file + 1 transcript (16 p.)