Document Type

Oral History

Publication Date

December 2008

Creation Date


Publisher Information

Florida Holocaust Museum in conjunction with University of South Florida Tampa Library and Holocaust & Genocide Studies Center


Battle of the Ardennes, Battle of the Bulge, 1944-1945, Army, Atrocities, Concentration camps, Counter Intelligence Corps, Crimes against humanity, Enkelmann, Robert F., Gardelegen Massacre, Gardelegen, Germany, 1945, Genocide, Germany, Infantry Division, 102nd, Liberation, American, United States, Veterans, World War, 1939-1945


This is an oral history interview with Holocaust concentration camp liberator Robert F. Enkelmann. Enkelmann was in a mortar battalion in the 102nd Infantry Division, which discovered the Gardelegen massacre on April 15, 1945. Two days earlier, several thousand prisoners from nearby camps were locked inside a barn which was then set on fire. The 102nd found the remains, and their commander ordered the townspeople to bury the bodies properly. Enkelmann guarded the barn while the bodies were being buried. After the war, he stayed in Europe with the Counter Intelligence Corps investigating war crimes. Enkelmann, the son of a German immigrant, was the interpreter for SS General Heinz Harmel and arrested the secretary of Hans Frank, the Nazi Governor-General of Poland. In this interview, he recounts his experiences at Gardelegen and in CIC, and describes a close call during the Battle of the Bulge.

Physical Information

1 sound file (41 min.) : digital, MP3 file + 1 transcript (15 p.)