Document Type

Oral History

Publication Date

July 2008

Creation Date


Publisher Information

Florida Holocaust Museum in conjunction with University of South Florida Tampa Library and Holocaust & Genocide Studies Center


Armored Division, 3rd, Armored Division, 3rd., Army, Atrocities, Concentration camps, Crimes against humanity, Genocide, Germany, Liberation, Nordhausen, American, Ray, Robert, United States, Veterans, World War, 1939-1945


Oral history interview with Holocaust concentration camp liberator Robert Ray. Ray was a rifleman in the 3rd Armored Division, which liberated Nordhausen on April 11, 1945. When Ray's division arrived at the camp, one of the tanks in his unit punched a large hole in the wall and the prisoners came out. The soldiers could see how emaciated they were and gave them food and cigarettes. Ray also saw several flatcars loaded with bodies on a railroad track outside the camp, some of which still moved. His unit was unable to stay at the camp for very long; after giving the inmates their rations, they had to continue on their mission. After the war, Ray stayed in Europe on occupation duty for another year, during which time he was reassigned to the 2nd Armored Division as a photographer.

Physical Information

1 sound file (27 min.) : digital, MP3 file + 1 transcript (14 p.)