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antiandrogens, hot flashes, nocturia, prostatic neoplasms, sleep

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Background: Patients with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are at risk of sleep disturbance; however, to the authors' knowledge, the mechanisms by which ADT may affect sleep are not well understood. The current study compared objective and subjective sleep disturbance in ADT recipients and controls and examined whether sleep disturbance in ADT recipients is attributable to the influence of ADT on hot flashes and nocturia.

Methods: Patients with prostate cancer were assessed before or within 1 month after the initiation of ADT as well as 6 months and 12 months later (78 patients). Patients with prostate cancer were treated with prostatectomy only (99 patients) and men with no history of cancer (108 men) were assessed at similar intervals. Participants self‐reported their sleep disturbance (Insomnia Severity Index) and interference from hot flashes (Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale). One hundred participants also wore actigraphs for 3 days at the 6‐month assessment to measure objective sleep disturbance and reported their nocturia frequency.

Results: ADT recipients reported worse sleep disturbance, higher rates of clinically significant sleep disturbance, and greater hot flash interference than controls (P s≤.03). In cross‐sectional analyses among those with actigraphy data, ADT recipients had greater objective sleep disturbance and more episodes of nocturia (P s<.01). Cross‐sectional mediation analyses demonstrated that the association between ADT and objectively and subjectively measured sleep disturbance was partly attributable to nocturia and hot flashes (P s<.05).

Conclusions: The results of the current study suggest that the association between ADT and sleep may be partly explained by nocturia and hot flash interference. Future studies should examine behavioral and pharmacologic interventions to address these symptoms among ADT recipients.

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Citation / Publisher Attribution

Cancer, v. 124, issue 3, p. 499-506

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Gonzalez, B.D., Small, B.J., Cases, M.G., Williams, N.L., Fishman, M.N., Jacobsen, P.B. and Jim, H.S. (2018), Sleep disturbance in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: The role of hot flashes and nocturia. Cancer, 124: 499-506; which has been published in final form at 10.1002/cncr.31024. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.