Relationships between Volcano Distribution, Crustal Structure, and P-wave Tomography: An Example from the Abu Monogenetic Volcano Group, SW Japan

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volcanic hazard, monogenetic volcanic field, volcanic distribution, nonparametric kernel method, seismic tomography, cinder cone

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Achieving an understanding of the nature of monogenetic volcanic fields depends on identification of the spatial and temporal patterns of volcanism in these fields, and their relationships to structures mapped in the shallow crust and inferred in the deep crust and mantle through interpretation of geophysical data. We investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of volcanism in the Abu Monogenetic Volcano Group, Southwest Japan, and compare these distributions to fault and seismic data in the brittle crust, and P-wave tomography of the crust and upper mantle. Essential characteristics of the volcano distribution are extracted by a nonparametric kernel method using an algorithm to estimate anisotropic bandwidth. Overall, E-W elongate smooth modes in spatial density are identified that are consistent with the spatial extent of P-wave velocity anomalies in the lower crust and upper mantle, supporting the idea that the spatial density map of volcanic vents reflects the geometry of a mantle diapir. While the number of basalt eruptions decreased after 0.2 Ma, andesite eruptions increased and overall volume eruption rate is approximately steady-state. Estimated basalt supply to the lower crust is also constant. This observation and the spatial distribution of volcanic vents suggest stability of magma productivity and essentially constant two-dimensional size of the source mantle diapir since 0.46 Ma.

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Bulletin of Volcanology, v. 72, issue 3, p. 331-340