Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

C. Victor Fung, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Clint Randles, Ph.D.

Committee Member

David A. Williams, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Michael S. Zelenak, Ph.D.


autonomy, motivation, scale development, social learning, task persistence


Social cognitive theory was developed to explain how individuals learn, in part, by witnessing the behavior of others. Self-efficacy is a construct within social cognitive theory which indicates the beliefs that an individual can be successful at a task under specific situational demands. The sources of self-efficacy include self-evaluating past experiences to predict future success, comparing our abilities to those around us, the verbal and social feedback we get from others, and the physiological feelings we experience when engaged in or thinking about the task. Measures of self-efficacy have been shown to be accurate predictors of successful learning outcomes, achievement, and continued participation in an activity in the face of adversity. Within the context of music education, measures of music performance self-efficacy have been developed which have been accurate predictors of success and continued participation in competitive environments. As music education moves online and becomes more learner-centered, and additional ways of thinking and knowing are privileged in the classroom, it would be beneficial to have measures of self-efficacy that extend beyond the traditional ensemble structure of instrumental or vocal performance self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a measure of songwriting self-efficacy with U.S. secondary general music students (N = 108). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with oblique-promax rotation was conducted using structural equation modeling (SEM) to measure goodness-of-fit and structure coefficients. The model was specified and fit Bandura’s model of self-efficacy. Correlations between the Songwriting Self-Efficacy Scale (SSES) and related constructs demonstrated high levels of convergent validity. Additional steps were needed to increase the criterion-related validity of SSES. Overall, this study resulted in a developed and validated measure of songwriting self-efficacy.