Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

World Languages

Major Professor

Sanghoon Park, Ph.D.

Co-Major Professor

Sara Smith, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Matthew Foster, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Phil Smith, Ph.D.


incidental learning, implicit learning, language input, word associations, multiword expressions, individual differences


The current study investigated the correlation between English collocation test scores and three independent variables including vocabulary level, informal language exposure, and motivation. The study also examined which independent variable was the most influential in predicting the collocation tests scores. Data was collected using, Gyllstad’s (2007) COLLEX and COLLMATCH tests, Webb et al.’s (2017) Form A of the updated Vocabulary Levels Test, Luk and Bialystok’s (2013) Language and Social Background Questionnaire (LSBQ), and Moskovsky et al.’s (2016) L2 Motivational Self-System Questionnaire (L2MSS). Participants (N = 136) from a Saudi university completed the questionnaires. The results indicated that although there were positive relationships between the collocation scores and the three independent variables, only vocabulary level and informal language exposure were significantly correlated. Finally, the multiple regression analysis showed that vocabulary level and informal exposure were significant predictors of the learners’ collocational knowledge.