Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Educational Leadership

Major Professor

Ann Cranston-Gingras, Ph.D.

Committee Member

John Ferron, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Karen Colucci, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Sanghoon Park, Ph.D.


exceptionalities, GPS, mobile technology, pedestrian travel skills


This study examined the differential effects of a GPS based navigational app displayed on a smartwatch and a paper map on the ability of individuals with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities (ID) to independently navigate unfamiliar walking routes. A single case alternating treatment design was used to compare the effectiveness of these navigation supports on independent pedestrian navigation. Five adults ranging in age from 26 to 45 with mild to moderate ID participated in the study. Visual analysis and the comparison of means between treatments indicate an increase in performance during the app treatment phase for all participants. Overall, all five participants made correct decisions 29.6% more often with the app. The findings of this study suggest the mobile application has potential to improve the ability for individuals with ID to independently navigate from one location to another. Future research should focus on utilizing the public transportation feature within this application to enhance the complexity of navigation routes for participants and allow for further navigation skill development.