Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Educational Leadership

Major Professor

Vonzell Agosto, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Zorka Karanxha, E.D.

Committee Member

Wiliam Black, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Danielle Dennis, Ph.D.


bricolage, content analysis, GIS, minoritized students


The purpose of this study was to investigate Florida’s extended reading time (ERT) policy as enacted during the 2016-2017 school year. This policy requires elementary schools ranking among the 300 lowest performing in the state, as measured by state assessments, to provide an additional hour of reading instruction beyond the regular school day. Extending upon the work of a pilot study suggesting an overrepresentation of minoritized students within low 300 schools, this study presents the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic distributions of the ERT mandate for a criterion sample of seven districts. Further, the pilot study indicated an underrepresentation of minoritized characters within student texts. Current literature supports the use of culturally relevant educational practices. As such, a second component of this study was the examination of core reading materials as these programs were used as the main reading instruction to prepare students for state testing, the results of which determined school rankings. Acting as bricoleur, I combined elements of critical GIS and content analysis to develop a rich description of Florida’s ERT policy. Data indicated spatial clustering of low 300 schools in four districts in addition to overrepresentation of minoritized students within the low 300 schools when compared with populations at the district level. The content analysis revealed few examples of cultural relevancy within curricular materials. The number and quality of minoritized characters were lacking as were cultural values represented as themes in texts. This study draws attention to the need for culturally relevant curricular materials and revision of policies that adversely affect minoritized students.