Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Special Education

Major Professor

Brenda L. Walker, Ph.D., J.D.

Committee Member

Karen Colucci, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Sanghoon Park, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Vonzell Agosto, Ph.D.


Technology Integration, Obstacles, Classroom, School


Prior research has indicated that assistive technology (AT) devices and services can improve the functional capability of students with autism, which includes multiple areas of student needs, such as communication, accessibility, organization, sound, sight, academic skills, mobility, and memory. Nevertheless, concerns persist as to how AT devices are being implemented in the classroom; this is because teachers are experiencing a variety of barriers to using AT (Hew & Brush, 2007). The purpose of this study is to explore the barriers affecting Saudi teachers’ use of AT for teaching children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study’s sample consists of 85 teachers who work with students with autism in the city of Riyadh in the central region of Saudi Arabia. The study used an embedded mixed-methods design, which included two types of data collection: quantitative data through the use of a Likert scale and qualitative data consisting of employed open-ended questions. The data were collected using an online survey that gathered information about participants’ demographic information, frequency of AT use, barriers to AT use, and how these barriers affect AT use. The findings of the study revealed that teachers face first-order barriers related to lack of resources, support, time, and training. Moreover, teachers’ limited skills and knowledge are major second-order barriers. Most of the participants indicated that these barriers reduce or prevent AT usage in the classroom. The teachers also reported that they use high-tech AT more than other types of AT. The study’s results may benefit policymakers, education department administrators, school leaders, and teachers who have direct and indirect influence on reducing barriers to the successful use of AT.