Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Granting Department


Major Professor

Graydon A. Tunstall Jr., Ph.D.

Committee Member

Kathleen Paul, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Giovanna Benadusi, Ph.D.


peace treaty of versailles, pilsudski, plebiscite, poland, polish-soviet war, polish-ukrainian war, riga peace treaty, upper silesia, uprising


Poland was erased from European political maps in 1795 and fought in vain for freedom for the next century, until World War I provided another chance for independence. On November 11, 1918, the creation of the Polish Republic was proclaimed, but in an atmosphere of uncertainty, particularly relative to frontiers.

The border with Germany was established in 1920-21 after plebiscites. While peaceful in Masuria, Ermland and Pomerania, there were three violent uprisings of the ethnic Poles in Upper Silesia. The status of Gdansk as a Free City was confirmed at Versailles in 1919. The Southern border with Czechoslovakia was settled in 1920.

The Eastern borders were established after a war with Ukraine and a conflict with Lithuania. The last and most exhausting war with Soviet Russia was ended by 1921s Riga Peace Treaty. Polands boundaries were finally recognized by the Conference of Ambassadors in March 1923.