Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)

Degree Granting Department

Child and Family Studies

Major Professor

Kwang-Sun Cho Blair, Ph.D., BCBA-D

Co-Major Professor

Catia Cividini-Motta, Ph.D., BCBA-D

Committee Member

Kimberly Crosland, Ph.D., BCBA-D


Academic Engagement, Active Responding Strategies, Clickers, Disruptive Behavior, Response Cards


This study compared the effects of high-tech (e.g., clickers) and low-tech (e.g., response cards) active responding strategies during whole-group English language arts in two first-grade classrooms serving students with and without disabilities. The authors combined an ABAB reversal design with an alternating treatments design to compare the impact of using high-tech (clickers) and low-tech (response cards and hand raising) modalities on academic engagement, accuracy of responding, and disruptive behavior across four teacher-nominated students in two first-grade classrooms. During baseline, the teacher conducted her lesson as planned by having the students raise his/her hand to answer questions. In the intervention phase, students alternated between using preprinted response cards and clickers each session to answer the teacher’s questions. When using the pre-printed response cards or clickers, the students were instructed to hold up the index card with the correct answer or click the correct answer on his/her remote after the teacher read the question. The results of the study indicate that both active responding strategy (ARS) modalities were equally effective in increasing student academic engagement and decreasing disruptive behavior.