Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)

Degree Granting Department

Dean's Office

Major Professor

Vijaykumar Sutariya, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Sheeba Varghese Gupta, M. Pharm, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Manas R. Biswal, B.F.Sc., M.F.Sc., Ph.D.


Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, anti-neovascularization, sustain drug release, ARPE-19, intravitreal injection


Despite of all the research going on for the treatment of ocular diseases, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains one of the serious vision threatening disease worldwide. Choroidal neovascularization, a pathophysiological characteristic of wet AMD, is the growth of anomalous blood vessels in the eye choroidal layer. Neovascularization is a key factor in AMD and thus anti-angiogenic therapy is beneficial in reducing the development of new abnormal blood vessels to prevent progression of AMD. Axitinib, multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a small molecule that works by blocking vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) and platelet derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR) responsible for developing neovascularization. Thus, goal of this study was to develop and characterise a sustained release formulation of Axitinib loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized for particle size and zeta potential as well as using DSC, TEM and in vitro drug release profile. The cytotoxicity of the formulation was evaluated on human retinal pigmented epithelium ARPE19 cells by MTT assay. The cellular uptake, anti-migration assay, and VEGF expression levels were found out in vitro using cells. The optimized formulation was 131.33 ± 31.20 nm in size with -4.63± 0.76 mV zeta potential. Entrapment efficiency was found to be 87.9 ± 2.7%. The cytotoxicity of ARPE19 cells was less than 12% for nanoparticles suggesting the in vitro compatibility at 10 µM concentration of drug. Cellular uptake, anti-migration assay and VEGF expression levels for the nanoparticles had greater uptake, had significant anti-angiogenic potential and exhibited inhibition of VEGF activity. The results showed successful development of axitinib loaded PLGA nanoparticles as an alternative potential treatment option for AMD.