Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
Degree Granting Department
Padmaja Ayyagari, Ph.D.
Andrei Barbos, Ph.D.
Gabriel Picone, Ph.D.
He Zhang, Ph.D.
Difference-in-Difference, Medicare Part D, Health, Informal Care, Endogeneity, Instrumental Variable
This doctoral dissertation proposal is comprised of three separate chapters, all of which uses the nationally representative uniform survey Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) to examine the relationship between health, insurance, health care and health outcomes. Below, the brief introduction for each section is provided:
Chapter I: Medicare Part D and Patients' Well-being
Chapter II: Parent's Health Insurance and Informal Care
Chapter III: Job Insecurity and Health (with Dr. Ayyagari)
In chapter I, I explore how Medicare Part D (MD) affects the well-being of the severely sick patients both in the short- and in the long- term. I employ difference-in-difference (DD) alongside the instrumental variable (IV) model. The estimated results imply MD significantly improves mental health and increases regular drug utilization for the elderly. However, it neither systematically improves out-of-pocket payment (OOP) nor improves mortality across all waves. This suggests that MD provides an efficient mechanism to improve mental health and drug utilization, but might not necessarily enhance survival rate and financial burden for vulnerable patients.
Chapter II investigates the relationship between informal care provided by the children and the take-up of health insurance by the near-elderly and elderly parents, and how the correlation is influenced by parent’s Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of
Daily Living (IADLs). The results indicate that when the endogeneity is controlled for, in-formal care systematically crowds out the take-up of private long-term care (LTC) insurance whereas “crowds in” the take-up of the total plan including supplement insurance plans (TSP). Nevertheless, the degree of both crowding-out and “crowding-in” effect is reduced when the severity of ADLs/IADLs disability level grows. Our study reflects (a) the strong demand for TSP and more additional health coverage within household budget line (b) and the potential gap between healthcare demands by the parents and the informal care provided by the children and the potential gap between the healthcare demands by the parents and the formal care covered by the insurance. Our estimates are robust to alternative measures of informal care.
The final chapter III examines the causal effect of subjective job insecurity on health, using pooled ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects (FE) and instrumental variable (IV) specifications. The estimate implies that the negative impact of job insecurity is more pronounced for certain outcomes such as mental health and the emergence of new health conditions. Job insecurity provides a powerful prediction on subsequent job displacement and real income loss. Sub-population such as low-employability/better-educated individuals or males responds more to job insecurity than their counterparts.
Scholar Commons Citation
Nakamoto, Ichiro, "Essays on Health, Healthcare, Job Insecurity and Health Outcomes" (2019). Graduate Theses and Dissertations.