Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Electrical Engineering

Major Professor

Jing Wang, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Thomas M. Weller, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Arash Takshi, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Rasim Guldiken, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Shengqian Ma, Ph.D.


Additive Manufacturing, Microelectromechanical Systems, Microfabrication, MMIC


Prior research focused on CMOS-MEMS integrated oscillator has been done using various foundry compatible integration techniques. In order to compensate the integration compatibility, MEMS resonators built on standard CMOS foundry process could not take full advantage of highest achievable quality factor on chip. System-in-package (SiP) and system-on-chip (SoC) is becoming the next generation of electronic packaging due to the need of multi-functional devices and multi-sensor systems, thus wafer level hybrid integration becomes the key to enable the full assembly of dissimilar devices. In this way, every active circuit and passive component can be individually optimized, so do the MEMS resonators and sustaining amplifier circuits. In this dissertation, GaAs-MEMS integrated oscillator in a hybrid packaging has been fully explored as an important functional block in the RF transceiver systems.

This dissertation first presents design, micro-fabrication, simulation, testing and modeling of ZnO piezoelectrically-transduced MEMS resonators. A newly designed rectangular plate with curved resonator body fabricated in-house exhibits a very high Q of more 6,000 in the air for its width-extensional mode resonance at 166 MHz. In addition, a rectangular plate resonator with multiple Phononic Crystal (PC) strip tethers shows low insertion loss of -11.5 dB at 473.9 MHz with a Q of 2722.5 in the air. An oscillator technology with high-Q MEMS resonator as its tank circuit is presented to validate its key functionality as a stable frequency reference across a wide spectrum of frequencies. Particularly, a piezoelectrically-transduced width-extensional mode MEMS resonator is strategically designed to operate at two distinct layout-defined mechanical modal frequencies (259.5MHz and 436.7MHz). These devices were characterized and modeled by an extracted equivalent LCR circuit to facilitate the design of the oscillator using a standard circuit simulator. MEMS resonators have been integrated with the sustaining amplifier circuit at PCB level using wire-bonding technique and coaxial connectors. As shown by the time-domain measurements and frequency-domain measurements, these oscillators are capable of selectively locking into the resonance frequency of the tank circuit and generating a stable sinusoidal waveform. Meanwhile, the phase noise performance is rigorously investigated within a few oscillator designs. At last, 3-D printed hybrid packaging using additive manufacturing and laser machining technique has been developed for integrating a MEMS resonator on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate and a GaAs sustaining amplifier. Fabrication process and fundamental characterization of this hybrid packaging has been demonstrated. On-wafer probe measurements of a 50 Ω microstrip line on ABS substrate exhibit its insertion loss of 0.028 dB/mm at 5 GHz, 0.187 dB/mm at 20 GHz and 0.512 dB/mm at 30 GHz, and show satisfactory input and output return loss with the 3-D printed package. Parylene N is also experimentally coated on the package for improving water resistance as a form of hermetic packaging.