Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Child and Family Studies

Major Professor

Kimberly A. Crosland, Ph.D., BCBA-D

Committee Member

Raymond G. Miltenberger, Ph.D., BCBA-D

Committee Member

Rose Iovannone, Ph.D., BCBA-D

Committee Member

Kevin Murdock, Ph.D., BCBA-D


active instruction, effective instruction, multiple-choice questions, opportunities to respond, short answer questions


Instructional design and delivery may be one tool available to teachers to increase the academic and social behaviors of all students in the classroom. Effective instruction is an evidence-based teaching strategy that can be used to efficiently educate our youth across all learning environments. One effective instructional strategy includes increasing students’ opportunities to respond to instructor-posed questions during lectures. Students may respond to questions using a response card system as a way to promote active engagement. This study examined the most common form of instructor-posed questions presented during lecture, recall and recognition questions, to determine the differential effects on students’ academic and participation behavior in a college classroom. Results found no differentiation in students’ academic behavior with respect to question type. Students’ participation behavior was greater when the instructor used class wide active responding procedures than observed in baseline conditions that represented typical college instruction.