Graduation Year


Document Type




Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Degree Granting Department

Special Education

Major Professor

Ann Cranston-Gingras, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Sylvia Diehl, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Brenda Townsend Walker, Ph.D.

Committee Member

John Ferron, Ph.D.

Committee Member

Jeannie Kleinhammer-Tramill, Ph.D.


Reading Comprehension, Autism, single-case design


This study examined the effects of anaphoric pronouns presented via computer screen on the reading comprehension of four children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Stories from the website were used to collect data. The students’ responses to reading comprehension questions during baseline, treatment, and follow-up sessions were analyzed. The perceptions of students regarding anaphoric pronouns were also analyzed. Initially, reading levels, fluency and comprehension rate, of the students with ASD were identified via the Gray Oral Reading Test, Fifth edition (GORT-5), Test of Narrative Language (TNL), and Test of Narrative Language, Second edition (TNL-2). A randomized multiple baseline (MBL) design with a follow-up extension across participants was implemented to determine the effects of anaphoric reference support using computer-based instruction on the students’ reading comprehension skills. The analysis indicated a statistically significant increase in the reading comprehension skills. Positive student feedback about using anaphoric reference support with automated computer program supported the effect of the intervention on the reading comprehension of the students with ASD. The researcher presented recommendations for further research and studies.